“all arrangements, contracts, agreements, trusts, or combinations . . . made with a view, or which tend, to prevent full and free competition . . . or . . . designed, or which tend to advance the cost to the consumer” would be void.
… when Congress debated the Sherman Act, economists sharply distinguished between trusts (monopoly) and competition Overall, it is fair to state that, when Congress considered the Sherman Act, American economists mostly held an intuitive understanding that monopolies lead to high prices while competition in the form of a marketplace with many sellers drives prices down.