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lunes, 4 de marzo de 2013

Francés y catalán como instrumentos de la construcción de la nación vía homogeneización de la población

La inmersión lingüística ha hecho más por el separatismo en Cataluña que cualquier otra decisión política adoptada en España desde la llegada de la democracia al incrementar la homogeneidad de los habitantes de Cataluña y su diferenciación del resto de España. Vean el siguiente resumen de la contribución de la educación en francés a la construcción de la nación francesa:

The Convention (the legislative assembly from September 1792 to October 1795) decreed that in the Republic children should learn to \speak, read and write in the French language" and that \instruction should take place only in French." Much of the emphasis on training the nation in French was via schooling (discussed below). Eugen Weber suggests that policies and the degree to which they were implemented increased in intensity with the onset of the Third Republic in 1870
Official figures produced in 1863 document that a quarter of France's communes spoke no French at all. Even this is likely a gross exaggeration of the amount of French spoken: as an example, the same ocial figures document all communes in Pyrenees-Orientales as French speaking while also documenting that half of all school children in Pyrenees-Orientales spoke no French whatsoever. Based on a number of sources, Eugen Weber estimates that `French was a foreign language for a substantial number of Frenchmen, including almost half the children who would reach adulthood in the last quarter of the [19th] Century.' Further Weber claims that the French `had no uniform concept of patriotism at the Revolution...and that patriotic feelings on the national level, far from instinctive, had to be learned.'
Education policy in France developed greatly after the Revolution. Immediately after the Revolution the French First Republic (1792-1804) set a quota such that a quarter of children could be admitted for free to school. In 1833 a law introduced by Francois Guizot, the Minister of Public Instruction, obligated every commune (or group of communes) to have a primary school and every department to have a school for teacher training. The next big change in the education system had been planned by the Minister of Education in 1867 but took place in the 1880's (the Jules Ferry laws). In 1881 all school fees were abolished, in 1882 schooling was made compulsory, subsidies for building schools were introduced, while the curriculum prescribed teaching in French, teaching French literature and the history and geography of France. To reiterate the point that French history was imposed from above rather than taught as part of a collective identity, it is noted that before the Jules Ferry laws were introduced most teachers knew French history very badly and had to be taught it themselves before they could teach it to children.The potential to mould a population through education, whether true or not, was certainly believed by those in power in the Republic: Francois Guizot, the Minister of Public Instruction in 1833; was a strong believer in the power of education claiming it could act as a `guarantee of order and social stability'; Ferdinand Buisson a prominent gure in Republican education in the 1880's stated that teaching French `our beautiful and noble mother tongue' was `the chief work of the elementary school - a labor of patriotic character'; while Felix Pecaut who undertook a general inspection of the French education system for the Third Republic claimed it was possible to `use French history to form French citizens, make the free fatherland be known and loved.'
¿Está justificado que los nacionalistas catalanes se sientan ofendidos cuando se acusa a la inmersión lingüística de servir a fines políticos?

1 comentario:

Carlos Creus dijo...

lo que me parece de una inocencia preocupante es que alguien piense que las políticas lingüísticas/ escolares de todos los estados NO sirvan a fines políticos.

o a caso en los colegios no se enseñan valores democráticos? o capitalistas? o religiosos? o acaso no se enseña a los alumnos a ver el mundo de una determinada manera?

me parece preocupante que alguien piense que hay "una manera neutra" de educar a los niños. dicho esto, en paralelo a enseñarles la historia (cada país/ pueblo con su punto de vista) se le deben dar herramientas para que, en el futuro, puedan cuestionar esos puntos de vista por ellos mismos.

me molesta que se diga que la inmersión lingüística en Catalunya responde a criterios políticos para influir en la mentalidad de los niños para adoctrinarlos cuando sean mayores.

o a caso a ti no te molesta que te diga que por la educación franquista que has recibido estas adoctrinado y tus opiniones son franquistas?

es q a veces se ve la paja en el ojo ajeno...

un abrazo Jesús!

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