jueves, 13 de octubre de 2011

La polarización del mercado de trabajo

Trabajos en el sector servicios que serán sustituidos por robots en algún futuro; trabajos de ejecución de rutinas que están desapareciendo a gran velocidad (o trasladándose a países en desarrollo) y trabajos de empresarios. Eso es lo que vamos a ver, parece:
David Autor (is), an MIT economist who has drawn the clearest picture anywhere of the impact of technology and globalization on labor markets. He describes the pattern as "labor-market polarization." At the bottom of the market, there's a growing number of service-sector jobs that require hands-on interaction in unpredictable environments--driving a bus, cooking food, caring for children or the elderly. These are impossible to outsource or replace with technology (at least until the robot revolution takes off). In the middle are jobs requiring routine information processing: accounting, typing, filing, approving a mortgage application or an insurance claim. These were once well-paid jobs held by relatively educated Americans; now they tend to be done by iGate Patni's employees, and in the future, says Autor, they are likely to be performed by a computer.
At the top of the market are the jobs everyone wants. And guess what? These are the jobs that many graduates of the American education system are well prepared for. These jobs require creativity, problem solving, decision making, persuasive arguing, and management skills. In this echelon, a worker's skills are unique, not interchangeable. "These jobs deal with a tremendous amount of information, but the added value of the worker is in doing the non-routine parts," says Autor. Technology and outsourcing routine tasks make these top workers even more powerful and productive, giving them even more data and tools with which to innovate.

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