domingo, 3 de enero de 2010


Un interesante artículo explica por qué la imitación (la que no es desleal de acuerdo con el art. 11 LCD) beneficia a la industria de la moda y por qué, reconocer un derecho de propiedad intelectual sobre los vestidos podría perjudicar a la industria (THE PIRACY PARADOX REVISITED Kal Raustiala & Christopher Sprigman):

"Fashion is a statusconferring, or “positional,” good. In affluent societies, apparel purchases are motivated to a large degree by status seeking, rather than a desire to cover nakedness or stay warm. And fashion goods are subject to an unusual form of “two-sided” positionality. As an attractive design begins to spread, its positional or status-conferring value grows as fashion-forward consumers consume it. But as the design diffuses beyond the fashionable to the ordinary consumer, its positional value declines, and fashion-conscious early adopters are primed for the next new thing. Obligingly, the fashion industry has a new round of design innovations ready for them to consume. The cycle of innovation and diffusion starts again (induced obsolescence) ...The industry’s practice of copying and reworking attractive new designs—a practice made possible by the low-IP rule—speeds up the fashion cycle by diffusing designs more quickly, and then driving them toward exhaustion.

Copying and derivative reworking produce a faster creative cycle and more consumption of fashion due to the quicker deterioration of apparel’s statusconferring value... the industry “anchors” its seasonal output to a discrete set of designs—trends—that characterize what is, at least for the moment, in fashion. In this way, copying and derivative reworking create trends—and trends are the basis of much fashion consumption. In turn, trends send signals that reduce the information costs that all of us face in getting dressed—namely, what are we to wear? These signals about trends are useless to some, but for many they are significant. Put in trademark language, trends reduce the search costs of style... ... piracy substitutes for functional innovation...: piracy is the fashion industry’s equivalent of the new feature on a cell phone. It is a force that encourages a consumer to discard a perfectly serviceable garment and purchase the new, new thing.

Como recuerdan estos autores, "Understanding how innovation persists absent legal protection is, given the great costs of IP rights, an extremely important task". Cuando había que hacer un muro de piedra o una valla de madera para separar mi finca de la de mi vecino, el coste de delimitar los derechos era tan elevado que no se señalaban claramente las lindes. Cuando se "inventó" la alambrada, en el Oeste americano se empezaron a deslindar fincas a gran escala. Si la innovación persiste sin poner en marcha un sistema de derechos de propiedad muy costosos de diseñar e implementar y asegurar su respeto, mejor no los pongamos en marcha.

No hay comentarios:

Archivo del blog